Atkinson’s and Shiffrin’s (1968) multi-store model was extremely successful in terms of the amount of research it generated.
However, as a result of this research, it became apparent that there were a number of problems with their ideas concerning the characteristics of short-term memory.
Building on this research, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) developed an alternative model of short-term memory which they called working memory (see fig 1).
Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argue that the picture of short-term memory (STM) provided by the Multi-Store Model is far too simple. According to the Multi-Store Model, STM holds limited amounts of information for short periods of time with relatively little processing. It is a unitary system. This means it is a single system (or store) without any subsystems. Working Memory is not a unitary store.
Working Memory by Saul McLeod published 2008, updated 2012 – Sourced from
This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner articulated eight criteria for a behavior to be considered an intelligence. These were that the intelligences showed: potential for brain isolation by brain damage, place in evolutionary history, presence of core operations, susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), a distinct developmental progression, the existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, and support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings.
Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria: musical–rhythmic, visual–spatial, verbal–linguistic, logical–mathematical, bodily–kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. He later suggested that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion. Although the distinction between intelligences has been set out in great detail, Gardner opposes the idea of labeling learners to a specific intelligence. Gardner maintains that his theory of multiple intelligences should “empower learners”, not restrict them to one modality of learning. According to Gardner, an intelligence is “a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture.”
Sourced from Wikipedia
The Multiple Intelligence’s model which focuses on different learning styles has been challenged and determined to be lacking in its scope because it does not require the instructor to “understand what motivates and cerebral y stimulates their students.” (www.elearningindustries.com)
How this helps with my delivery of instruction
In Carol Dueck’s book Mindset:The New Psychology of Success, she presents the “fixed” and “growth” notion of mindset that she has researched about students and learning. Keeping in this in mind I would have students evaluate their own mindset as per http://www.mindsetonline.com so that they could work with each other and with me to help those determined to have a fixed mindset, to move successfully towards one of growth.
I would also be aware that too much talking or delivery of instruction that lacked visual references and/or short breaks or pauses to reflect, limits the experience of learners with slow linguistic processing; also understanding the background and interests of learners in the context of multiple learning styles.